HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL SPARK DISCHARGE (ESD):
The cheap, fast, dirty way to make Colloidal Silver.
By Dr. John Stewart M.B., Ch.B., B.A. Sc. 5 August 2018
INTRODUCTION: Most commercial Colloidal mineral waters, such as Colloidal Silver and Colloidal Gold, are now made by high voltage spark submerged underwater because it is fast, efficient, and low cost because thin wires are used instead of the large area anode plates used by Biophysica, the leading professional electrolytic producer. However, a recent review of ESD Spark publications reveals that the resulting quality is significantly less than the gentle electrolysis method. Making nanoparticles smaller than 20 nm presents a formidable challenge that few can accomplish, but many claim only an independent professional lab analysis can reveal the truth.
Historically in the preparation of nano-scale minerals, various chemicals were mixed to precipitate the small particles out of the solution. Now we have only two methods for the production of particles down to almost atomic size.
1) ESD. In the ESD method, an electric arc is created with a very high voltage underwater which melts the tips of the metal wires, exploding them into fine micro-particles having an average size of 100 nm (0.1 microns).
2) Electrolysis. With our electrolysis method, a pulsed DC voltage is applied between a large area anode and cathode, made of the pure chosen metal. Atoms are thus gently drawn off from the anode (positive plate) and are swept into the bulk before being able to be deposited on the cathode (negative plate).
With this gentle method, independent lab results have confirmed that we obtain 1 part per million (ppm) per hour with a range of the finest nano-particles from 8 nanometers down to mono-atomic size and a very high ZP of -60 millivolts. PPM rises to a saturation ceiling of 50 ppm where no more ZP charge can be carried. Values of ppm reported by some manufacturers to be higher than 50 ppm, yellow or red color, would indicate that ZP is very low and particles are very large. With a slow, gentle electrolysis method, the resulting colloidal water is clear and retains its potency for several years. Many users buy their own Biophysica generator to make colloidal silver and other colloidal minerals at home at a fraction of the cost of commercially-sold liquid of dubious quality.
ZP is an electrical charge, well described in Wikipedia, and is the measure of excellence of a colloid. The molecular-sized particles in a colloidal suspension carry an alkaline negative electrical charge (ZP) which is the most important particle characteristic because it determines many of the properties of the suspension. It is balanced by an opposite sign in the surrounding solution. If the repulsion between approaching particles is large enough they will bounce away from one another and that will keep the particles in a state of suspension, up to the saturation maximum of 50 ppm. If the ZP is too low (less than 20 millivolts), repulsive forces will not be strong enough, the particles will come together and may stick in a permanent diatom, then other particles may come along and also be caught in the growing aggregate. The suspension is then unstable and the aggregates will quickly settle out from the surrounding medium.
The ZP charges on the particle surface are normally attached to it very firmly as part of a structured hexagonal matrix and will remain there more or less indefinitely, even when diluted in the body of humans or animals unless disturbed by mixing with unstructured water. The higher the value of the zeta potential, the more stable the system will be. That means it will be better able to withstand additions of salt (which might otherwise destabilize it).
BLOOD–BRAIN BARRIER (BBB)
The two important measures of quality and efficacy of a colloid are nano-particle size and Zeta Potential (ZP). Particle size made with the ESD method is larger, having an average size of around 100 nm and the smallest around 20-50 nm, far too large a range to pass the blood-organ barriers and therefore unable to combat infections in vital organs. For example, the Blood–Brain Barrier (BBB) is composed of a network of vessels that form a physical, electrostatic and chemical barrier between the brain and blood circulation. Most other organs have their own analogous protective barrier which can be easily damaged by a virus. Diseases of the retina, testis, ovary, prostate, kidney, liver, thymus, thyroid, placenta, pancreas are likely mostly caused by an invading virus that targets that specific organ then paves the way for subsequent bacterial growth. Even obesity is thought to be initiated by an adenovirus.
Large molecules, like chemotherapy drugs, antidepressants, most antibiotics such as penicillin, do not pass through the BBB easily. These barriers have evolved to prevent the transport of bacteria, large molecules, and most small molecules bigger than 20 nm into the brain or organ. Certain conditions such as mental stress, aging, viral or traumatic inflammation compromise the barrier increasing its permeability. Certain bacteria, although too large, can penetrate because of their rotating spiral structure (spirochaetes) which allows them to act as a power drill. These enter the brain and cause syphilis (Treponema), Lyme (Borrelia), and Leptospirosis.
Even with well-maintained lab equipment, the best ESD results fall outside of the desired effective range both for the smallest particle size and for ZP. Reported ESD best values for ZP is 30 millivolts (mv) instead of our 60 mv. ZP must be more than 30 mv to ensure the stability of the nano-particles, otherwise particles agglomerate and fall to the bottom in a few days.
HEXAGONAL STRUCTURED WATER:
Structured water (SW) stores electron energy and has been shown to be antioxidant, more hydrating, and can reverse certain biological markers of oxidative stress and aging, SW water molecules join together in hexagonally structured single layer sheets which are flexible. All of the water in your body is structured water. Energized structured water recharges the ATP battery of the body. When the body has sufficient energy, its aqueous interior is highly charged allowing for optimized cellular and metabolic function in addition to greater hydration and detoxification at a mitochondrial level.
Worthy of mention is the fact that when dimensions are less than 20 nm Quantum phenomena begin to become important. Such effects we might expect from our nanoparticles are:
- Tunneling through an unsurmountable barrier, such as bacterial membranes, biofilm.
- Non-locality or action at a distance by remote resonance.
- Bose-Einstein Condensate where all particles are incoherent alignment like a laser beam
- Wave-particle duality. An infinity of possibilities exists before the wave collapses.
- Observer Effect and interactions with Consciousness and the power of Intention on the hexagonal crystalline matrix.
Biophysica colloidal generators have the largest area pure metal plates (up to 6 x 8 inches), constant controlled current, alternating reverse polarity, Mobius Coil, magnetic vortex using Neodymium magnet, high frequency pulsing (switching current on and off thousands of times per second) as used in the electro-plating industry and result in a very fine mono-atomic deposit. The resulting mineral waters have a hexagonal structure, highest bioavailability, nanometer-sized particles, color is clear with no turbidity, highest total particle surface, highest Zeta Potential and potency against spirochetes, viruses, prions, yeasts, molds, fungus, algae which are more difficult to eliminate.
ESD and other techniques using thin wire or rod anodes make colloids of borderline quality and although effective against some gram-positive organisms are less effective against Gram-negative bacteria like E Coli, viruses and prions and are totally unable to enter the BBB because of their large size. The pulsed low voltage electrolysis method used by Biophysica, when done slowly and gently, can provide a quality that far surpasses the ESD method.
- Characterization of electrical discharge machining plasmas.
- Preparation of Ag/Cu/Ti Nanofluids by Spark Discharge System and Its Control Parameters
- Getting Drugs Past the Blood-Brain Barrier: has 16 references. The gram-negative bacteria are more difficult to treat due to their outer membrane. They include Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Yersinia pestis. https://www.the-scientist.com/features/getting-drugs-past-the-blood-brain-barrier-30196
- The Blood–Brain Barrier has a size-selective permeability to uncharged molecules of up to 4 nm, and then low permeability to larger molecules Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2015 Jan; 7(1): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4292164/
- Is a Virus Causing Obesity: Evidence is growing that people who are overweight may have a virus to blame, New Scientist, 28 July 2018
- Blood-brain barrier: Has 68 references https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood–brain_barrier#cite_note-3
- The Fourth Phase of Water: Dr. Gerald Pollack and Hexagonal Structured Water Science, Reveals a hidden hexagonal lattice structure, alkaline pH, and electrical potential. This University of Washington professor of bioengineering has developed a theory of water that has been called revolutionary.
- The Importance of Structured Water to Health is a real phenomenon that can be clearly seen under a microscope. http://www.sophiahi.com/importance-structured-water-health/
- Silver nanoparticles: the powerful nano weapon against multidrug-resistant bacteria, Over 70 references, February 2012, Journal of Applied Microbiology https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2012.05253.x
- New Structured Silver: A New Fighting Chance by Dr. Gordon Pedersen silverhealthinstitute.com
- The Observer Effectcollapses wave functions into particles
- The observer effect is the theory that simply observing a situation or phenomenon necessarily changes that phenomenon. Even observing the results after the photon is produced leads to collapsing the wave function (retro-active causation) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Observer_effect_(physics)