Stirring: In place of the old stirrer motor and magnetic stirrer, the steel electrode will be centrally mounted. Stirring can be accomplished using a laboratory-style motorized magnetic plate that induces a magnetic vortex or using an immersible aquarium pump for large containers over 1 gallon, both of which we sell and are cheaper on Amazon. Stirring is important in order to prevent our precious atoms from depositing onto the cathode instead of circulating in the water as a colloidal suspension of charged nanoparticles. The immersible pump is just sufficient to induce a vortex but avoid bubbling & mixing with air. It is used to enhance the quality of the product by restructuring the water and contribute to the very high Zeta Potential of our nanowater.